Explanation and prediction typically require models with a good deal more formality than is usually required for human communication. An explanation relates a phenomenon to “first principles”; these principles, and rules by which they are related, do not depend on interpretation by the consumer but instead are in some objective form that stands outside the communication. Such an objective from, and the rules that govern how it works, is called a formalism.
When a model provides an adequate explanation of a phenomenon, it can be used to make predictions. This aspect of models is what makes their use central to the scientific method, where falsification of predictions made by models forms the basis of of the method of inquiry.
He was still a bit skeptical about RDF, and said that RDF was in the same situation as XML—that if he and I stored similar information using different vocabularies, we’d still have to convert his to use the same vocabulary as mine or vice versa before we could use our data together. I told him he was wrong—that easy aggregation without conversion is where semantic web technology shines the brightest.
However truly smart - and real - cities are driven bottom up by citizens and organizations as innovators rather than by top down visions and plans that ignore the innovative potential of grassroots efforts, while governments should play the role of mediator bringing companies, research organizations and creative people to work in concert (Ratti, Townsend). The connection between smart environments and bottom-up innovation practices in the framework of cities and urban agglomerations is the main focus of the Special Issue. In particular we explore how collaboration platforms, embedded systems, open data, and semantic web technologies sustain a new round of innovation driven by the creativity of the population and the collective intelligence of collaboration. The concept of Living Labs takes its point of departure in the consideration of people as innovators, and envisions environments of open and user driven innovation. As infrastructures and social networks become more advanced and widespread, the role of the Internet as an enabler of city services has become more important for urban development. Cities are increasingly assuming a critical role as drivers of innovation in areas such as health, inclusion, environment and business, a trend that will surely continue as more people and devices will become part of the Future Internet even than are connected today. Cities are increasingly becoming a living lab itself, a playground of innovation and transformation.
The basic idea of inference is that it is possible to know more about a set of data than what is explicitly expressed in the data.
OWL vs. OOP
In object-oriented programming, a class is like a blueprint or template for the creation (instantiation) of objects; an object is an instance of a class. OWL classes are interpreted as sets that contain individuals, with no notion of instantiation.
The year open data went worldwide.
social networking libero e decentralizzato: questa si che è creatività! “collegare cose note in modi nuovi”
It’s time to return to the original concept of the Web-based Internet—an interconnected, decentralized and distributed, open and independent cacophony of individuals who control their own Webspace, operate their own communication channel, and freely communicate with others without having to worry about a central point of failure. The only way to build a truly open and decentralized global microblogging network is by leveraging the power of the Semantic Web. Doing so will help usher in the reality of the Social Web. Decentralizing and individualizing Stream creation and management will help ensure that the MicroBlogOcean does not have a central point of failure and does not require a central-controlling authority. With a properly semantified and structured Stream, even efficient and effective privacy and identity management become feasible.